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coaching presence research

General Information

Coaching is increasingly viewed and implemented as a key leadership and team development tool in organizations. In contrast, coaching research is still in its infancy. Previous empirical studies reveal that coaching proves to be an effective instrument in supporting coachees’ goal-attainment, well-being and personal development. Today we know that coaching works. However, the question how coaching works has remained a black box.

On my PhD trajectory affiliated with Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Business Research Centre, NL and in collaboration with Ashridge Centre for Coaching, UK as well as Case Western Reserve University, US, we are conducting a comprehensive coaching process-outcome-study. In other words, we investigate certain factors that potentially impact the effectiveness of coaching. We want to explore what really happens in coaching sessions. In doing so, we go beyond coach and coachee self-reports by analyzing video recordings for non-verbal interactions between coaches and coachees in a longitudinal study. We expect findings to contribute to our deeper understanding of what constitutes coaching’s effectiveness and how you as a coach may be enabled to enhance and optimize the effectiveness of your coaching practice. Therefore, we invite you to make a contribution in our project.

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I am Tünde Erdös and I welcome you to my research project.

Follow our progress or contact me directly via the links below:


How to participate

contact me via email

Mag.phil. Tünde Erdös, MSc. Executive Coaching
Mobile: +43 (0) 660 47 61 900
Feel free to contact me whenever you have a question, encounter a technical issue, or feel that you need further guidance.

Procedural Overview

Coach

The following steps outline coach's involvement.
  1. Researcher and coach sign a data processing agreement and an informed consent form to set the boundaries of collaboration between researcher and coach (one time for all participating clients)
  2. Researcher makes available to coach a separate informed consent form to be signed by client (one per each participating client
  3. Coach passes on the informed consent form to client and stores it on behalf of the researcher to safeguard client’s anonymity and confidentiality (no sharing of client’s identity with researcher) & researcher and coach agree on a pseudonym for each participating client
  4. Coach informs researcher about the number of sessions required for them to fulfill the necessary amount of recorded minutes over sessions (600-720 minutes of recorded material)
  5. Researcher provides coach with the pre-coaching questionnaire links to be forwarded to coachee
  6. Client completes pre-coaching questionnaire within 24 hours
  7. Coach kindly reminds client to complete the pre-coaching questionnaire in due time
  8. Once the pre-coaching questionnaire is completed by client coach may start recording coaching sessions
  1. Coach records each coaching session (see instructions video recording)
  2. After each completed coaching session coach informs researcher about the session completed and receives the first video submission link and the first post-session questionnaire link to be forwarded to client
  3. Client completes post-session questionnaires within 24 hours
  4. Coach transfers the recorded coaching session to his computer (see instructions video transfer)
  5. Coach uses the CPR-App to compress & encrypt the recording (see instructions video submission)
  6. Coach starts uploading processed file (see instructions video submission)
  7. Coach kindly reminds client to complete the post-session questionnaire in due time
  8. Repeat steps 9-15 until all sessions scheduled for this research are completed
  9. After completion of the last session, coach is welcome to consume his/her feedback sessions about their interpersonal synchrony and coaching presence with researcher at their own leisure
  10. Coaches are entitled to receive a minimum one feedback session. The number of feedback sessions depends on each coach’s affiliation with one or more of the following professional coaching bodies (ICF, LVSC, ANSE)
  1. One month after completion of coaching sessions coach forwards the post-coaching questionnaire link to client
  2. Client completes post-coaching questionnaire within 24 hours
  3. Coach kindly reminds client to complete the post-coaching questionnaire in due time
  4. Once the research project is successfully completed researcher will provide coach with a participation certificate issued by VU and Ashridge Centre for Coaching

Coachee

The following steps outline coachee's involvement.

Pre-coaching:
  1. Coachee signs informed consent forms
  2. Coachee completes the pre-coaching questionnaire sent to him by coach within 24 hours

Session-by-session:
  1. After each completed coaching session, coachee completes the post-session questionnaire sent to him by coach within 24 hours

Post-coaching:
  1. One month after completion of coaching sessions, coachee completes the post-session questionnaire sent to him by coach within 24 hours

IT requirements & recommendations

Measuring coaching presence

  • Internet access
  • Video recording device (e.g. smartphone, tablet, digital camcorder) with enough storage space for capturing an entire coaching session in one go (max. 120-minutes) (see step-by-step instructions below)
  • Private (rather than public) coaching space in a stable and calm environment (no moving objects or humans in the background of the recording)
  • Email account to be able to communicate with researcher and receive/forward questionnaire links to clients
  • Stationary home office internet connection (as opposed to mobile internet connection) for uploading video files (cable or DSL)
  • Uploading files via mobile internet connection or metered internet connection is not advised because uploading is likely to use up your contracted data volume (please check your contract with your internet service provider)
  • Stable internet connection and higher internet speed enable fast uploading of video files to secure cloud server
  • PC for uploading video files (as opposed to uploading by smartphone)
  • Using a tripod with smartphone mount for stabilizing the device for recording (see step by step instructions for video recordings below)
  • Researcher recommends coaches to share their phone number with her for her to be able to provide coaches with the IT support necessary in the event of technical issues

Step-by-Step Instructions: Video Recording

To get prepared for you recording session, follow the steps below.

  1. Choose the recording device of your preference (e.g. smartphone, tablet, PC, digital camcorder, digital camera with video recording capability)
  2. Ensure your device has got enough free storage capacity to record an entire session, in line with your session format: max. 120 minutes per session (60 minutes of video on an iPhone in 720p need around 4GB of free space)
  3. Set your recoding resolution to 720p or 480p to decrease the recordings file size.
  4. Make sure your device is charged (check for battery power or make sure you can plug-in your device to the power socket)
  5. Make sure your device will not go into standby or sleep mode while recording (Does not apply to most smartphones)
  6. Your coaching sessions need to take place in an environment that is free from background movements (e.g. people, cars or pets passing, clocks on the wall, trees moving with the wind, etc.) and changing lighting conditions (e.g. being seated in front of the window)
  7. You may conduct your sessions in any language you like / need as audio material is not evaluated in this research project. Audio material – if recorded – will be removed prior to submission to researcher (see instructions video submission below)
  8. Please take precautionary measures (e.g. advise others not to disturb you while in coaching session; keep pets/kids in separate room for the duration of your session) to avoid being interrupted in your sessions

To record your session, follow the steps below depending on the recording device of your choise.

  1. You need to make sure that both coach and client are captured full-bodied in the video recording
  2. When positioning your recording device, please pay attention to how you need to stabilize your device. Use either a tripod or position your smartphone on an even surface fixed between two stable objects (e.g. heavier books). You may also use a case that can hold your device in place (e.g. tablet case, smartphone case, etc.).
  3. Coach and client need to be seated either vis-à-vis each other or slightly angled: in any event, their movements need to be captured by the camera
  4. If you have your session scheduled at dawn or dusk, please make sure you have got lights switched on in the room for recording purposes
  5. If you are using a smartphone or tablet with phoning capability, you need to make sure that the device is switched to airplane mode (this will prevent interruptions and avoid the recording from being cut off by an incoming call)
  6. Start video recording by pressing the ‘record’ button
  7. Should you choose to change your seating position (e.g. you want to do some embodiment exercise) you may do so. Please reposition your camera such that your bodies can be captured in full again. Sessions should be recorded in their entirety
  8. Should a coaching session (need to) be interrupted (e.g. third person entering the room; someone has to leave for a short pause) try to keep the session in recording mode. Do not stop and resume recording, if possible
  9. In the event of any interrupted sessions, please inform researcher about these interruption duly
  10. Stop video recording
  1. You need to make sure that both coach and client are captured full-bodied in the video recording
  2. When positioning your recording device, please pay attention to how you need to stabilize your device. Use either a tripod or position your smartphone on an even surface fixed between two stable objects (e.g. heavier books). You may also use a case that can hold your device in place (e.g. tablet case, smartphone case, etc.).
  3. Coach and client need to be seated either vis-à-vis each other or slightly angled: in any event, their movements need to be captured by the camera
  4. If you have your session scheduled at dawn or dusk, please make sure you have got lights switched on in the room for recording purposes
  5. If you are using a smartphone or tablet with phoning capability, you need to make sure that the device is switched to airplane mode (this will prevent interruptions and avoid the recording from being cut off by an incoming call)
  6. Start video recording by pressing the ‘record’ button
  7. Should you choose to change your seating position (e.g. you want to do some embodiment exercise) you may do so. Please reposition your camera such that your bodies can be captured in full again. Sessions should be recorded in their entirety
  8. Should a coaching session (need to) be interrupted (e.g. third person entering the room; someone has to leave for a short pause) try to keep the session in recording mode. Do not stop and resume recording, if possible
  9. In the event of any interrupted sessions, please inform researcher about these interruption duly
  10. Stop video recording
  1. You need to make sure that both coach and client are captured full-bodied in the video recording
  2. When positioning your recording device, please pay attention to how you stabelize your computer. Try to place your computer on an even surface.
  3. Coach and client need to be seated either vis-à-vis each other or slightly angled: in any event, their movements need to be captured by the camera
  4. If you have your session scheduled at dawn or dusk, please make sure you have got lights switched on in the room for recording purposes
  5. To prevent interuptions, quit any messaging or Voice over IP applications (Skype, Zoom, etc.)
  6. Open the Windows 'Camera' app and switch into video mode
  7. Start video recording by pressing the ‘record’ button
  8. Should you choose to change your seating position (e.g. you want to do some embodiment exercise) you may do so. Please reposition your camera such that your bodies can be captured in full again. Sessions should be recorded in their entirety
  9. Should a coaching session (need to) be interrupted (e.g. third person entering the room; someone has to leave for a short pause) try to keep the session in recording mode. Do not stop and resume recording, if possible
  10. In the event of any interrupted sessions, please inform researcher about these interruption duly
  11. Stop video recording
  12. You will find the recorded file in the camera roll folder inside your pictures folder
  1. You need to make sure that both coach and client are captured full-bodied in the video recording
  2. When positioning your recording device, please pay attention to how you stabelize your computer to prevent movement. Try to place your computer on an even surface.
  3. Coach and client need to be seated either vis-à-vis each other or slightly angled: in any event, their movements need to be captured by the camera
  4. If you have your session scheduled at dawn or dusk, please make sure you have got lights switched on in the room for recording purposes
  5. To prevent interuptions, quit any messaging or Voice over IP applications (Skype, Zoom, etc.)
  6. Open the 'QuickTime Player' application
  7. Navigate to File -> New Movie Recording
  8. Start video recording by pressing the ‘record’ button
  9. Should you choose to change your seating position (e.g. you want to do some embodiment exercise) you may do so. Please reposition your camera such that your bodies can be captured in full again. Sessions should be recorded in their entirety
  10. Should a coaching session (need to) be interrupted (e.g. third person entering the room; someone has to leave for a short pause) try to keep the session in recording mode. Do not stop and resume recording, if possible
  11. In the event of any interrupted sessions, please inform researcher about these interruption duly
  12. Stop video recording
  13. Save the recording by navigating to File -> save ...

Step-by-Step: Video Transfer

If you are using a smartphone or tablet for recording, you will have to transfer the recording to you computer. Follow the steps below, depending on your operating system combination. This does not apply to when you use a latop or any other pc to create recordings.

  1. Connect your iPhone / iPad to your PC using the Lightning cable (or 30-pin if you have an iPhone 4S or earlier)
  2. Press Windows key + E to launch a File Explorer window
  3. Wake your iPhone and unlock it. Tap ‘Trust this computer’ if prompted
  4. Click on your iPhone under This PC (or My Computer on earlier versions of Windows)
  5. Double-click on Internal Storage on the right, then on the folder titled DCIM, and you’ll see one or more folders, labelled 100APPLE, 101APPLE, 102APPLE etc.
  6. If you want to transfer the most recent videos, click on the folder with the highest number. The oldest ones are in the folder with the lowest number
  7. Photos, screenshots and videos are displayed in a list with ascending numbers in chronological order. Select just the file/files you want to transfer
  8. Now you can right-click on the selected file/files, copy and paste them into a folder of your choosing
  1. Make sure that you have the latest version of iTunes on your Mac. Importing photos to your Mac requires iTunes 12.5.1 or later
  2. Connect your iPhone, iPad or iPod touch to your Mac with a USB cable
  3. You might need to unlock your iOS device using your passcode. You might also see a prompt on the iOS device asking you to Trust This Computer. Tap Trust to continue
  4. On your Mac, the Photos app automatically opens. If it doesn't, open the Photos app
  5. The Photos app shows an Import screen with all the photos and videos that are on your connected device. If the Import screen doesn't automatically appear, click the Import tab at the top of the Photos app, or click the device's name in the Photos sidebar
  6. To import a selection of photos, click the ones you want, then click Import Selected. To import all new photos, click Import All New Photos
  1. Connect your Android phone to your PC via USB cable
  2. Wake your smartphone and unlock it
  3. Wait for computer to finish driver installation. Sometimes, it may require you to manually install the driver
  4. A notification should appear on your smartphone telling you that your phone is connecting to a computer. Pull down the notification and tap Transfer files or File transfer
  5. Now an Explorer window should appear, if not press Windows key + E to launch a new File Explorer window
  6. Navigate to your phone's internal storage under This PC (or My Computer on earlier versions of Windows)
  7. Open the DCIM folder which should contain the camera folder with the recorded video
  8. Photos, screenshots and videos are displayed in a list with ascending number in chronological order. Select just the file/files you want to transfer
  9. Now you can right-click on the selected file/files, copy and paste them into a folder of your choosing
  1. Download the Android File Transfer App from: https://www.android.com/filetransfer/
  2. Open the downloaded AndroidFileTransfer.dmg file and move the Android File Transfer App to your Applications folder
  3. Connect your Android phone to your Mac via an USB-cable
  4. Start the Android File Transfer App
  5. A notification should appear on your smartphone telling you that your phone is connecting to a computer. Pull down the notification and tap Transfer files or File transfer
  6. Using the Android File Transfer App, browse to the DCIM folder which should contain the camera folder with the recorded video
  7. Photos, screenshots and videos are displayed in a list with ascending number in chronological order.
  8. Drag and Drop the file/files you want to transfer onto your computer

Step-by-Step: Video Submission

Prior to uploading video files you will have use the CPR-App to have files transcoded (compressed) to enable shorter upload times and to have them encrypted to ensure authorized access only. Follow the steps outlined below on how to prepare the recordings using the CPR-App, depending on you computer's operating system.

  1. Download the CPR-App for Windows from: http://www.coachingpresenceresearch.com/downloads/windows
  2. Unzip the downloaded CPR-App.zip file
  3. Open the extracted folder and start the CPR-App by double-clicking the CoachingPresenceResearchApp.exe
  4. Grant permission to open the app, if prompted
  5. Use the Select File button to navigate to the recording
  6. Now the CPR-App will transcode, compress and encrypt the recording (this may take a while depending on your computer's configuration)
  7. Once the process is completed the processing indicator will disappear. Click the show new file button to open the folder containing the newly created .pgp file
  8. CPR App will place the crated file in the same folder as the original recording. You can identify the encrypted recording by the added .gpg suffix
  9. Now you can procede to upload the recording
A. Installing the required software:
  1. Download the CPR-App for Mac from: http://www.coachingpresenceresearch.com/downloads/mac
  2. Unzip the downloaded CPR-App.zip file
  3. Right-click the install.command from inside the unzipped CPR-App folder and select Open. Click Open, if prompted. A terminal window will appear and the installation will start
  4. Select the terminal window and press enter, when prompted
  5. Enter your mac's user password, then press enter, when prompted
  6. Wait for the installation to be completed, then close the terminal window
  7. The software is now installed and configured
B. Transcode and encrypt the video file:
  1. Right-click the CRP-App inside the unzipped CPR-App folder and select Open. A file selection dialog will apear
  2. Navigate to the recording and select the recording
  3. Wait until the completed transcoding, compression & encryption dialog appears
  4. CRP-App will place the created file in the same folder as the original recording. You can identify the encrypted recording by the added .gpg suffix
  5. Now you can procede to upload the recording

Once the compressed and encrypted .pgp file is ready, follow the steps below to upload the recording.

  1. Open the link provided by researcher
  2. Select the Upload button and navigate to the encrypted recording, the name of which ends on .pgp
  3. Wait till the file is uploaded (this may take some time depending on your internet connection speed)

Frequently Asked Questions

SUPPORT:

Please contact me via email at tuende.erdoes@ptc-coaching.com or

contact IT support directly at support@coachingpresenceresearch.com

VIDEO RECORDING:

You can turn off iCloud Photos on a single device when you follow this step:

  • On your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch, go to Settings > [your name] > iCloud > Photos, then turn off iCloud Photos.

You can temporary disable iOS update Notifications when you follow these steps:

  1. Open the Settings app and go to “General”
  2. Choose “Storage & iCloud Usage”
  3. Go to “Manage Storage”
  4. Locate the iOS software update that is nagging you and tap on it
  5. Tap on “Delete Update” and confirm that you want to delete the update
  6. Disconnect from wi-fi to avoid the software update downloading itself again

Now that the update has been removed from the iOS device, you’ll want to avoid wi-fi, otherwise the update will just download itself at the next chance it gets. Typically this happens after the iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch is on wi-fi and it hasn’t been used in a while, similar to how iCloud automatically backs up.

We recommend using the build in recording software of your operating system.

  • iOS: 'Camera' app
  • Android: 'Camera' app
  • Windows 10 & Windows 8: 'Camera' app
  • macOS: 'QuickTime Player' app

The CPR-App does remove any audio from the video during the transcoding process but if you want to make sure no audio is recorded in the first place follow the steps below:

  • iOS: 'Camera' app -> not possible, please us another device for recording
  • Android: 'Camera' app -> not possible, please us another device for recording
  • Windows 10 & Windows 8: 'Camera' app -> go to Settings then Privacy and select Microphone, under 'Choose apps than can use you microphone', search for the 'Camera' App and turn it off
  • macOS: 'QuickTime Player' app -> go to Systemsettings then Sound and select Input, move the Input volume slider all the way to the left

Depending on your operating system, we recomend:

  • iOS: 'Camera' app
  • Android: 'Camera' app
  • Windows 10 & Windows 8: 'Camera' app
  • macOS: 'QuickTime Player' app

VIDEO SUBMISSION:

If your Anti-Virus program is blocking the CPR-App from starting, please add the CPR-App.exe file to the Anti-Virus's whitelist of trusted programs. For specific instructions depending on the Anti-Virus program installed on your pc, follow the coresponding link below:

Please contact support at support@coachingpresenceresearch.com

If you are using the Windows version of the CPR-App, please attach the log.txt, transcodeLogError.txt & transcodeLogOutput.txt files from the CPR-App folder to your email. You may not find all of these files in the CPR-App folder, depending on the problem encountered.

Please contact support at support@coachingpresenceresearch.com

If possible include the answers to the follwing questions in you email:

  1. Are you using a Mac or Windows PC?
  2. Which browser did you use GoogleChrome/Firefox/Safari/InternetExplorer?
  3. Did you use the CPR-App to create a compressed and encrypted file?
  4. How big is the file you tried to upload?

The files created by the CPR App ...

  • ... are often smaller than the original recording. This will enable quicker upload speeds.
  • ... are encrypted using the public key cryptography provided by software using the OpenPGP Message Format. This ensures only authorised access without requiring the use of passwords or installation of additional program.
  • ... will only contain video data.

To achive the above the CPR App will transcode the selected video file into a new smaller video without any audio. Then it applies the encryption and creates a new transcoded and encrypted file ending with ".pgp" in the original file's folder.

Only ".pgp" files created by the CPR App should be uploaded!